Vol 3-3 Commentary

Commentary: Sensitivity of Fite-faraco Versus Auramine-rhodamine in Mycobacterial Infection

Kelly Atherton BS1*, Latiffa Smith BS2, Alan Snyder MD MSCR3, John Plante MD MSCR3, Dirk Elston MD3

1College of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina; College of Graduate Studies, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA

2College of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA

3Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA

DOI: 10.29245/2767-5092/2021/3.1138 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-3 Review Article

Review of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Radiotherapy Related Skin Toxicities

Margaret A. Kaszycki1*, Jonathan Leventhal2 

1Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine

2Yale School of Medicine

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized cancer therapy, and their use in combination with radiation therapy (RT) has become increasingly utilized to optimize positive outcomes. The cutaneous adverse reactions from RT as well as ICIs are both well documented; however, in combination these cutaneous toxicities can be exacerbated. ICIs and RT may work synergistically to create an enhanced immune response against the tumor cells. This synergistic effect has been reported to occur both locally at the site of RT, as well as systemically via an abscopal effect. Fortunately, this combination of treatment does not increase the incidence of cutaneous reactions, although several cases have reported enhanced skin toxicity at the site of RT. RT is thought to create an ‘immunocompromised skin district’ or localized immune dysregulation in irradiated skin. This review summarizes previously published case reports and discusses the cutaneous adverse reactions from ICI and RT combination therapy. Properly identifying ICI and RT induced skin reactions depends on several factors including patient history, sequence of therapies, timing of reaction, and histological findings. Skin reactions from combination therapy can range in severity and include ICI-induced radiation recall dermatitis, as well as uncommon presentations of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, lichen planus, and bullous pemphigoid which are localized to or enhanced within areas of prior radiation exposure. It is important for oncologists and dermatologists alike to be aware of the spectrum of reactions associated with ICI and RT.

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Vol 3-3 Mini Review Article

Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) from Dermatology to Ophthalmology

Jose Salgado Borges1,2*, C. Vergés2, J. Lima1, March de Ribot F2,3

1Clinsborges. Porto, Portugal

2Department of Ophthalmology. Hospital Universitario Dexeus. Area Oftalmológica Avanzada. Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña. Barcelona, Spain.

3Department of Ophthalmology. Girona Hospital, Girona University. Girona, Spain.

Intense pulsed light (IPL) are medical-esthetical procedures that emit light at a wavelength of 500 – 1200 nm, interacting with epidermal and dermal tissues. IPL is a relatively new treatment of growing popularity thanks to its versatility and efficacy, mainly in dermatology and recently also in ophthalmology. These devices are used to treat dry eye disease, meibomian gland dysfunction, rosacea, and periocular lesions with outstanding results.

DOI: 10.29245/2767-5092/2021/3.1139 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-3 Mini Review Article

Thymidine Kinase 1: Making Its Mark In Immunotherapy

Toni O. Mortimer, Rachel Morris, Abigail Schekall, Kai Barlow, Kim L. O’Neill 

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In the U.S. alone, almost 2 million people will be diagnosed with cancer each year and just over a quarter of those diagnosed will pass away from the disease. Skin cancers are the most common forms of cancer. Early detection of cancer and cancer biomarkers enables clearer understanding of cancer progression in a patient and more effective treatments in response to the disease. Clinically relevant biomarkers are not only tools for early diagnosis of cancer but may also prove useful as immune targets for various immunotherapies, such as monoclonal antibody-based therapy and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. This review provides a brief overview of the rescue pathway enzyme thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and its history and biology, as well as discusses its role as a biomarker and potential immune target.

DOI: 10.29245/2767-5092/2021/3.1143 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-3 Mini Review Article

Nodular Melanoma: A Review of Pathogenesis, Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Nodular melanoma is the second most common subtype of melanoma. Unlike other subtypes, nodular melanoma is characterized by early vertical growth rather than the typical initial radial growth of most melanomas. As a result, nodular melanoma presents clinically in a more aggressive phenotype. Given its more aggressive nature and intrinsic ability to mimic benign lesions, a modified acronym has been developed to allow clinicians to better evaluate, diagnose and treat nodular melanoma in earlier stages. Surgical excision with wide margins is the gold standard of nodular melanoma therapy; however, an emphasis in early detection, diagnosis, staging, and treatment needs to be emphasized among clinicians due to its dismal prognosis in later stages, as compared to other subtypes. A better understanding of the molecular pathophysiology that allows nodular melanoma to act aggressively very early in diagnosis is necessary for the development of therapeutics that may effectively target lesions in more advanced stages.

DOI: 10.29245/2767-5092/2021/3.1144 View / Download Pdf